Get to know Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels

Get to know Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels

Parenteral is a method of administering nutrients, drugs, or fluids through a vein. This method is often used in patients with digestive disorders, such as malabsorption, or patients who have recently undergone gastrointestinal surgery.


The body gets nutrients from the food and drinks consumed daily. The food and drink will then go through the digestive process in the body.

However, the digestive system can sometimes experience disturbances, so that its ability to digest and absorb nutrients is impaired.

When this happens, the body will find it difficult to obtain important nutrients, such as carbohydrates. Over time, the body can experience nutritional deficiencies.

To prevent and overcome this problem, you can get parenteral nutrition from a doctor. In addition to providing nutrition and fluids, parenteral methods can also be used to give drugs by injection into a vein or intravenously.

This method of administration of drugs is usually done in patients who have difficulty or can not swallow, or have digestive disorders.

Some Conditions That Require Parenteral Nutrition

The provision of parenteral nutrition will be adjusted to the patient's overall condition, the type of nutrition needed, and the illness. Some patients can get parenteral nutrition for a while, but there are also patients who need parenteral nutrition for the rest of their lives.

The following are some conditions that make a person need parenteral nutrition:
  • Cancers of the digestive tract, such as stomach cancer and colon cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
  • History of bowel surgery
  • Impaired blood flow or ischemia
  • Blockages in the intestines, for example obstructive ileus
  • Malabsorption
  • Difficulty swallowing or dysphagia
Parenteral nutrition can also be given to infants who cannot digest nutrients from breast milk or formula well, such as in conditions of necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC.

Procedure for Parenteral Nutrition

Parenteral nutrition is given by injection or infusion. In general, there are two types of parenteral nutrition methods, namely:

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

This method of giving parenteral nutrition is carried out on patients who cannot digest all types of nutrients at all, so that all of their nutritional intake is given entirely through an infusion.

Partial parenteral nutrition (PPN)

VAT is generally performed for a short period of time in patients who are dehydrated or have difficulty digesting certain nutrients (malabsorption).

Side Effects and Risks of Parenteral Nutrition

Although it is useful to meet the nutritional and fluid needs of the body, parenteral nutrition can also cause the following risks and side effects:
  • Infection, usually in the veins
  • Swelling in the hands, legs, face, or in certain organs, such as the lungs
  • Hard to breathe
  • Electrolyte disturbance
  • Blood sugar rises excessively (hyperglycemia) or decreases too drastically (hypoglycemia)
  • Fever and chills
  • Blood clotting
  • Liver disfunction
  • Problems with bile, such as gallstone formation or inflammation of the gallbladder
  • Decreased bone density, especially with long-term parenteral nutrition
To anticipate and prevent these side effects, the doctor will monitor the patient's condition while providing parenteral nutrition, medication, or fluids.

If the side effects that arise are potentially harmful to the patient, the doctor will stop or reduce parenteral nutrition or medication for some time until the patient's condition improves.

If your condition requires parenteral nutrition, don't hesitate to ask your doctor about the benefits, risks, duration, and things that need to be done while receiving the treatment.