Due to Vitamin B Deficiency and Symptoms
Due to Vitamin B Deficiency and Symptoms
Lack of B vitamins can cause various health problems, such as beriberi, tingling, to anemia. B vitamins, like vitamin C, belong to the class of water-soluble vitamins. That means that B vitamins are not stored in the body and need to be consumed regularly.
B complex vitamins – starting from B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, to B12 – function to help the body process and get energy from the food consumed, maintain healthy muscles, eyes, and nerves, produce enzymes, and are useful for form red blood cells.
Impact of Vitamin B Deficiency
Deficiency of B vitamins can cause various health problems. This depends on the type of B vitamins that are lacking in the body. Here are health problems that can arise due to lack of vitamin B intake:
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
According to the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, the recommended daily intake of vitamin B1 ranges from 1 to 1.4 mg. Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause beriberi and Wernicke's disease. Beriberi can be recognized by symptoms of shortness of breath, abnormal eye movements, increased heart rate, swollen legs, and vomiting.
Wernicke's disease affects the nervous system and causes blurred vision, impaired muscle coordination, and decreased mental function. If left untreated, Wernicke's disease can worsen and lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome can include hallucinations, amnesia, difficulty opening eyes (ptosis), difficulty understanding information, memory loss or inability to form new memories.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B2 helps to process energy from foods that contain carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Vitamin B2 is also important for the growth and production of red blood cells. As a treatment, vitamin B2 is believed to be effective for treating headaches and reducing the risk of cataracts.
The recommended intake of vitamin B2 is 1-1.5 mg per day. If there is a deficiency of this B vitamin, the body will lack other nutrients, such as iron and protein. In pregnant women, vitamin B2 deficiency can inhibit the growth of the baby in the womb and increase the risk of preeclampsia.
Vitamin B2 deficiency can be recognized by the appearance of symptoms such as anemia, red eyes, dry skin, chapped lips, mouth infections, and sensitivity to light.
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B3 needs to be consumed as much as 10-15 mg per day. Without vitamin B3, the body will easily experience fatigue, indigestion, canker sores, vomiting, fatigue, and depression.
If severe, this type of vitamin B deficiency can cause pellagra disease which is characterized by scaly rashes on areas of the skin exposed to the sun, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, body fatigue, depression, swollen mouth, bright red tongue, and difficulty concentrating. If left untreated, this disease can lead to death.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
The recommended intake of vitamin B5 is 5 mg per day. Vitamin B5 deficiency is a rare case, because this vitamin can be found in almost all types of vegetables.
However, if it occurs, people who are deficient in this type of B vitamin will experience headaches, body feeling tired, emotional easily, burning sensation in the arms or legs, nausea, hair loss, increased heart rate, and digestive disorders.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
The recommended intake of vitamin B7 ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 mg per day. Vitamin B6 deficiency results in anemia and skin disorders, such as rashes or cracks around the mouth.
Lack of vitamin B6 can also increase the risk of brain disorders such as depression, seizures and confusion, nausea, muscle twitching, sores at the corners of the lips, tingling and pain in the hands and feet.
Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Biotin or vitamin B7 is a nutrient that plays a role in converting carbohydrates and fats into energy. In addition, biotin is also a nutrient that the body needs to maintain healthy eyes and hair growth, regulate metabolism, and keep blood sugar levels stable.
Deficiency of this type of B vitamin can be recognized by the appearance of symptoms in the form of hair loss, dry skin, scaly rash around the eyes or mouth, dry eyes, fatigue, and depression.
Vitamin B9 (folate)
Vitamin B9 deficiency can cause a decrease in the number of red blood cells or megaloblastic anemia. The recommended daily intake of folate is 400 – 600 micrograms (mcg).
Insufficient vitamin B9 in the body can cause various health problems, such as feeling tired, short of breath, gray hair, canker sores, poor body growth, and a swollen tongue.
Insufficient amount of vitamin B12 in the body is characterized by jaundice (jaundice), anemia, loss of appetite, visual disturbances, difficulty in defecating, irregular heartbeat, and shortness of breath.
If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause complications such as infertility, senile dementia, neural tube defects in the fetus, visual disturbances, and ataxia.
How to Meet the Needs of Vitamin B
To meet the daily needs of B vitamins, you can consume foods or drinks that contain these nutrients. Spinach, eggs, milk, chicken, and yogurt are examples of foods rich in B vitamins.
Apart from food, intake of B vitamins can also be obtained from various supplements or multivitamins. However, to determine the type of supplement and the dosage, you need to consult a nutritionist.
The doctor will determine the right type and dose of vitamin B supplements according to your health condition, as well as make a list of good foods you consume to meet the needs of B vitamins.